Chlorhexidine is active in vitro against a number of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, yeasts and dermatophyte fungi. At relatively low concentrations, the action of chlorhexidine is bacteriostatic. At higher concentrations the action is rapidly bactericidal. Chlorhexidine is relatively unaffected by organic debris (blood, pus, necrotic tissue etc.) Because of its cationic nature chlorhexidine has a sustained residual activity when applied to the skin.
Chlorhexidine in a detergent base (e.g. ScrubUp) is used extensively for disinfection of the hands, while alcohol-based chlorhexidine is particularly suitable for final-stage skin preparation of the peration site. The area should be kept wet for at least 2 minutes to achieve maximal effect. The immediate bactericidal action of chlorhexidine surpasses that of similar preparations containing povidone-iodine or triclosan.
The purpose of surgical hand disinfection is to render the skin free of bacteria, thus preventing the escape of bacteria into the operation wound through, amongst other things, the puncture of surgical gloves. A 4% chlorhexidine handwash was compared 1 with various other antiseptic agents and showed superior efficacy . Another study found that a 4% chlorhexidine handwash 2 reduced bacterial numbers to low levels and maintained these low levels for several hours . A 99.9% reduction of transient 3 contaminants were obtained following repeated washing owing to the cumulative activity of residual chlorhexidine .
Several different Kyron chlorhexidine formulations are available:
Chlorhexidine Concentrate 5% Solution – Kyron
Reg. No. Act 29GNR529/205565/070/706
Chlorhexidine digluconate 5% m/v in aqueous base.
Chlorhexidine Concentrate 5% Solution (Kyron) is bactericidal. It was effective in killing 99.9% of bacteria (P.aeruginosa,E.coli, S.aureus) within 5 minutes and 99.9% effective in killing fungi (A. niger) as tested by the SABS in accordance with Section 6.3 of SANS 1615-1994.
Directions For Use
Chlorhexidine Concentrate 5% Solutions are normally used as follows:
This solution contains 5 grams of chlorhexidine digluconate per 100ml. It may be diluted prior to use: to obtain 1l of a 0,05% chlorhexidine solution add 10ml of Chlorhexidine 5% Concentrate
to 990ml of water. Leave solution in contact with the surface to be treated for at least 15 minutes.